Oxygen: the Isotherm process foresees the use of technical oxygen and it’s not necessarily high purity cryogenic oxygen; the oxygen can come from various sources, depending on plant size and location:
- certain countries and localities have networks of gaseous oxygen carried by dedicated pipelines to users who pay according to the consumption;
- for the small sized plant (toxic hearths, industrial and municipal waste applications) the market offers commercial VSA plants that separate oxygen from the air and supply it to the plant; depending on the country these plants can be supplied by the producers in various contract forms (sale, leasing, etc.); for medium sized plants a further advantage lies in the fact that oxygen is produced as a gas from the air, in line with the Isotherm plant requirements, without the need for cryogenic tanks;
- for large plants (coal applications) a dedicated large-sized oxygen producer plant is convenient.
CO2: the Isotherm process produces clean fumes at high CO2 concentrations which, depending on the plant size and location the fumes, can have various destinations:
- go directly into the atmosphere, respecting the laws in force;
- for small sized plants, where the total amount of fumes is modest, there are companies interested to buy such fumes as they are, installing at their own expense, and downstream from the Isotherm plant, a unit for further fumes treatment for the production of industrial CO2;
- for large sized plants (power stations with Isotherm technology) the possible destinations, depending on country and location, are: the atmosphere, exploitation or use for the recovery of oil fractions (EOR- enhanced oil recovery) or capture in deep water-beds (CCS- carbon capture & sequestration).